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Introduction to Reforming country’s criminal justice system-2023

Introduction to Reforming country’s criminal justice system-2023

In 2020, The Ministry of Home affairs constituted a committee which was headed by Dr. Ranbir Singh (former VC of NLU Delhi). The committee was tasked with reviewing the existing 3 codes of criminal Law i.e. IPC, CrPC and Indian Evidence Act.

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The Main Aim of the committee is to ensure the security and safety of communities, individuals and the Nation on 11th August 2023, the centre proposed 3 bills and following standing committees recommendation, amended bills  and got approval from the both the houses of parliament.

The New criminal Laws overhaul the Indian Criminal Justice system. The main aim to revamp and replace the dated colonial Laws by considering implementation of Justice through a victim centric approach, increasing focus on national security and introducing digital/electronic evidence reviews, making them priorities of these Laws. 

The following criminal Laws are replaced and obtained after president’s assent in Indian Criminal Laws.

  • The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita-2023(BNS ACT)
    • (Replaced with Indian Penal Code IPC – 1860)
  • The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita-2023(BNSS ACT)
    • (Replaced with Code of Criminal Procedure code CrPC-1898)
  • Bhartiya Sakshya Adhiniyam-2023(BSA ACT)
    • (Replaced with Indian Evidence Act -1872)

The following is the comparative chart of the provisions of the changes of Criminal Laws as mentioned above:

Need for these New Acts:

  1. The existing Laws were from the colonial era and they were the exact replica of British Criminal jurisprudence and those who were designed to rule and oppress the Indian and not to serve or provide Justice but merely to punish them.
  2. Many of the sections were irrelevant in current scenario as we as a society has come a long way and evolved in every aspect as society.
  3. One of the major needs to constitute these 3 acts is to make the criminal justice system more efficient.

The above new acts are implemented with the effect from first of July 2024. (01-07-2024).

Mr. Rajeswara Rao T V (Assistant Professor – NA Global Law School)

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